بررسی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، آنتی‌اکسیدانی و میزان اسانس گیاه دارویی چای کوهی Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. در رویشگاه‌های استان‌های سمنان، خراسان شمالی و رضوی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران

چکیده

چای‌کوهی یکی از گونه ‌های دارویی جنس  Stachysو تیره نعناع با خواص درمانی متعدد می‌باشد که در مناطق مختلف ایران رویش دارد. جهت بررسی خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و فیتوشیمیایی این گیاه تحقیقی بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار از چهار رویشگاه در استان‌های سمنان، خراسان شمالی و رضوی در سال 1393 صورت پذیرفت. سپس در زمان گلدهی اقدام به ثبت خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی از قبیل ارتفاع در زمان گلدهی، وزن‌تر و خشک ریشه و ساقه، طول ریشه، تعداد گل در گل‌آذین، نسبت گل‌های باز به کل گل‌ها، تعداد برگ روی ساقه، سطح برگ و مقدار کلروفیل گردید. همچنین درصد و عملکرد اسانس، مقدار فنل کل، محتوای فلاونوئیدی و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی تعیین شد. با بررسی نتایج مشخص شد خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی گیاه مورد مطالعه در رویشگاه‌های مختلف اختلاف معنی‌دار نداشت در ‌حالی‌که در مورد میزان اسانس در سطح یک‌ درصد اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده شد. در بررسی خصوصیات فیتوشیمیایی، رویشگاه شاهرود بیشترین میزان فنل کل و مشهد بیشترین خاصیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی را دارا بود. همچنین بالاترین میزان فنل‌کل و محتوی فلاونوئیدی در برگ و بیشترین خاصیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی را گل داشت. همچنین بیشترین عملکرد و درصد اسانس مربوط به رویشگاه مشهد مشاهده شد که می‌توان بیان نمود با کاهش ارتفاع و بارندگی، میزان اسانس تولید شده در گیاه چای کوهی افزایش یافت.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of morphological characteristics, antioxidant and essential oil contents of the medicinal plant Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. in habitats of Semnan, Razavi,and North Khorasan provinces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedighe Chorli 1
  • Sara Khorasaninejad 1
  • Khodayar Hemmati 1
  • Bahare Kashefi 2
1 Department of Horticulture Sciences, Faculty of Plant Production,Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Stachys lavandulifolia is one of the medicinal plants from genus of Stachys and Labiatae with different medicinal properties that is widely found in Iran. This research was based on a completely randomized design with three replications to investigate the morphological characteristics and phytochemical properties in four habitats in Semnan, Razavi and North Khorasan provinces in 2014. Morphological characteristics such as plant height, wet and dry root and shoot weights, root length, number of total flowers, number of open flowers and leaf, leaf area, and chlorophyll content were measured at the time of flowering. Also, essential oil yield and percentage, total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were measured in flowering time. Morphological characteristics did not show any significant difference but essential oil yield and percentage showed a significant difference in different habits. The highes total phenol and antioxidant content were recorded for Shahrud and Mashhad, respectively. The amount of total phenol and flavonoid were determined in the leaves and the highest amount of antioxidant was recorded in flowers. Finally, the highest level of essential oil yield and percentage were recorded for Mashhad and decrease in the altitude and rainfall could be attributed increase in essential oil in Stachys lavandulifolia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant
  • Essential oil
  • Habitat
  • Stachys lavandulifolia
  • Total Phenol
  • Total flavonoid

References

Alibakhshi, M., Mahdavi, Kh., Mahmoudi, J. and Ghelichnia, H. )2014(. Phytochemical survey of essential oil of Stachys inflata indifferent regions of Mazandaran. Eco –phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants. 6(2):56-68.

Chena, G., Zhang, H.B. and Yea, J.) 2000(. Determination of rutin and quercetin in plants by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Analytica Chimica Acta. 423: 69–76.

Davise, F.S. and Albrigo, L.G. (1994). Citrus. CAB. International Press, Wallington, UK, P 814.

Farajallahi, S., Amiri, H., Ahmadvand, H. and Bagheri, SH. (2012).Comparison of the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of leaves and flower Stachys lavandulifolia vahl. Third National Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology Iran (plant, animal and industrial).

Farsi, A., Hemmati, KH., Ghasemnejad, A. and Rezainejad, A. (2011). The morphological characteristics and unit of essential oil of Mentha longifolia indifferent regions of the Lorestan province. First National Congress on Science and Technology of Modern Agriculture.

Gairola, S., Shariff, N., Bhate, A. and Prakash kola, C. (2010). Influence of climate change on production of secondary chemicals in high altitude medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 1825-1829.

Ghahreman, A. (1994). Iranian Choromatophytes (Plant systematic). 1st ed. Tehran: Pub of Tehran University. 237- 49.

Ghasemi, K., Ghasemi, Y., Ehteshamnia, A., Nabavi, M., Nabavi, F., Ebrahimzadeh, A. and Pourmand, F. (2011). Influence of environmental factors on antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid content of walnut. Medicinal Plant. 1138-1133.

Kargar, M., Jaafarianm Z., Tamartash, R. and Alavi S.J. (2015). The effects of some soil properties and topography on some functional traits of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl. in Angemar rangeland, Lasem watershed. Journal of Rangeland. 8(4):342-350.

Hemmati, KH., Ghasemnejad, A., Mashayekhi, K. and Bashiri Sadr, Z. (2012). Site effect on some important flavonoid compounds of Linden tree (Tilia platifolia L.). Journal of Plant Production. 19(2):141-148.

Jiang, P., Burczynski, F., Campbell, C., Pierce, G., Austria, J.A. and Briggs, C.J. (2007). Rutin and flavonoid contents in three buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum, F. tataricum, and F. homotropicum and their protective effects against lipid peroxidation. Food Research. 40: 356-364.

Mashayekhi, K. and Atashi, S. (2014). The analyzing methods in plant physiology (surveys befor and after harvest). Press sirang words, Gorgan, 310 p.

Mazandarani, M., Beyk Mohammadi, M. and Bayat, H. (2009). Ethnopharmacology and investigation secondary metabolites of Perovskia abrotanoides Karel.in two natural regions, North of Iran. Journal on Plant Science Researches.16 (4): 69-77.

Mohammadi milasi, R. and Roshandel, P. (2012). The characteristic of antioxidant and total phenol content in Hyssop plant. National Congress on Medicinal Plants of Yasuj. August 2012.

Makkizadeh Tafti, M., Naghdi Badi , H.,  Rezazadeh, Sh., Ajani, Sh. and Kadkhoda, Z. (2010). Evaluation of botanical traits and oil content/chemical composition in Iranian Thymus carmanicus Jalas Ecotypes. Journal of Medicinal Plant. 4(36): 57-65.

Nabavi, S.F., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A. and Nabavi, S.M. (2010). Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss .Grasasy Aceites. 61(3):277- 250.

Omidbaygi, R. (2010). Production and processing of medicinal plants. Publication, Astane Ghodse Razavi, 1: 347.

Rabbani, M., Sajjadi, SE. and Jalali, A. (2005). Hydroalcohol extract and fractions of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl: Effects on spontaneous motor activity and elevated plus-maze behavior. Phototherapy Research. 19: 854–858.

Rabbani, M., Sajjadi, S.E. and Zarei, H.R. (2003). Anxiolytic effects of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl on the elevated plus – maze model of anxiety in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacololgy. 89 (2-3): 271-6.

Salehi Sormaghi, MH. (2009). Medicinal Plants and Theraputic Plants. 2nd ed. Tehran: Pub of Nutrition World. 2: 121-3.

Sepehrifar, R. and Hassanlu, T. (2009). Evaluation of polyphenolic compounds, anthocyanins and total flavonoids and antioxidant properties of the herb cranberry, collected from four different regions of Iran. Medicinal Plant Quarterly. 33:66-74.

Shahraki, S., Mahdavi, KH., Hosseini, S.A., Mazandarani, M. and Tavan, M. (2013). Investigation quantity and quality of essential oils the Proveskia abrotanoides Karel. (Case study: international park of Golestan and Kyasar Mazandaran). Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plant. 3:68-81.

Soobrattee, M.A., Neergheen, V.S., Luximon-Ramma, A., Aruomab, O.I. and Bahoruna, T. (2005). Phenolic as potential antioxidant therapeuticagents: Mechanism and actions. Mutation Research. 579: 200-213.

Vundac, V.B., Brantner A.H. and Plazibat, M. (2007). Content of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of some Stachys taxa. Food Chemistry. 104: 1277- 1281.


Vundac, V.B, Males, Z., Plazibat, M., Golja, P. and Cetina-Cizmek, B.C. (2005). HPTLC determination of Flavonoids and Phenolic acids in some Croatian Stachys taxa. Journal of Planar Chromatography-Modern TLC.18: 269- 273.

Yavari, A.R., Nazeri, V., Sefidkon, F. and Hassani, M.E. (2010). Evaluation of some ecological factors, morphological traits and essential oil productivity of Thymus migricus Klokov & Desj.-Shost. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants,26(2): 227-238.

Zakerimehr, M.R., Mazandarani, M. and Pyrdashty, H. (2013a). Compare the total phenol leaves, unripe fruit and flower orange (Citrus aurantium L.) at two sites Amol and Gorgan. Natinal conference on Medicinal plant.

Zakerimehr, M.R., Mazandarani, M. and Pyrdashty, H. (2013b). Compare the total flavonoid leaves, unripe fruit and flower orange (Citrus aurantium L.) at two sites Amol and Gogran. Natinal conference on Medicinal Plant.